Introduction to Mesoscopic Physics and Quantum Dots (15466-01 and 20400-01)

Fall semester 2008
Prof. Dr. Dominik Zumbühl, 

last updated Dec 3, 2008 

previous semesters courses:
Fall 2007Winter 2006/7Spring 2006


Organization of Lecture, HS 2008 

lectures Thursday, 8:15am to 10am, weekly, Room 4.1

exercises Wednesday, 12:15pm to 1pm, weekly, Seminar Room 1.09

syllabus 2D electron gas, quantum point contacts, quantum dots, conductance fluctuations, quantum phase coherence, Coulomb blockade, Kondo effect, few electron dots, spin blockade, spin relaxation, charge sensing, single spin measurement, spin manipulation and coherence, nuclear spins, electron spin resonance, spin qubits, quantum computation. syllabus pdf

for: 6. semester bachelor and masters students in nanoscience and physics. physics III lecture is a prerequisite

credit points 2 credit points lecture and (optional) 2 credit points exercises. 
Lecture is a two hours per week course, no problem sets, final presentation, pass/fail.
The exercises will consist of reading a series of scientific publications relevant to class, meeting one hour per week where papers discussed by the students in depth.

purpose of this lecture is to bring the audience up to date on current experimental research in the field of quantum transport through nanostructures, focusing mainly on quantum dots in GaAs, spin-quibts in coupled dots and quantum computation. The lecture will inevitably discuss some simple condensed matter theory but will mainly focus on experiments.

structure will be a combination of lectures on my part to intruduce the basics and subsequent presentations done by students towards the end of the semester on topics that can be chosen by students from a selection. There will be no problem sets, but moderate amounts of reading as preparation for lectures will be assigned. The class is pass/fail, and the evaluation will be based on the presentation given by each student taking the class for credit. Sit-ins/students auditing the class (not for credit) are welcome.


Lecture Schedule and Content, HS 2008


datelecture content 
Sep 16, Tue, 9:15ampreliminary meeting, flier pdf, syllabus pdf
Thur, Sep 18, 8:15amsolid state physics background
crystals, bands, effective mass approximation, spin-orbit coupling, GaAs conduction and valence bands
hand out: Title and Introduction pdf
Thur, Sep 25, 8:15amsolid state physics background II
GaAs valence band, spin-orbit coupling, occupation of bands, density of states, chemical potential, intrinsic carrier concentration, semiconductor doping

Thur, Oct 2, 8:15amsemiconductor surfaces and interfaces
surface states, semiconductor-vacuum interface, band bending, Fermi level pinning, Schottky barrier and diode
lecture notes Chapter 2 pdf

2D electron gases (GaAs)
properties of 2DEGs, scattering mechanisms in 2DEGs and bulk GaAs
lecture notes pdf
Thur, Oct 9, 8:15am2D electron gases
screening in 2D and 3D, Friedel Oscillations, ohmic contacts to 2DEGs, lateral gating and nanoscale devices

quantum point contacts
van Wees et al., PRL60, 848 (1988) pdf
van Wees et al., PRB38, 3625 (1988) pdf
Thur, Oct 16, 8:15amexperimental techniques
sample fabrication, low temperature methods (chapter 4, Heinzel), properties of 3He and 4He and phase diagrams, cryostats, evaporative cooling,lecture slides pdf
Thur, Oct 23, 8:15amexperimental techniques (II)
4He and 3He fridges, 3He-4He mixtures, dilution refrigeration

concepts in mesoscopic physics
Drude conductivity, Einstein relation, mesoscopic time and length scales, 
lecture notes chapter 3 pdf
Thur, Oct 30, 8:15amconcepts in mesoscopic physics 
classical Hall effect, (integer) quantum Hall effect, 1D subbands, quantum point contacts, 0.7 structure
lecture slides pdf 

Cronenwett et al., PRL88, 226805 (2002) pdf
Thur, Nov 6, 8:00amquantum dots I: Introduction
types of quantum dots, open and closed dot regimes, Coulomb blockade and diamonds, quantum confinement energy, constant interaction model, ground state and excited state spectroscopy, sequential and cotunneling transport, Coulomb peak lineshapes 
lecture notes pdf

Kouwenhoven et al., dot review article, pp 1-28 pdf
van Houten et al., CB review, NATO ASI, pp 1-15 pdf
Foxman et al., PRB47, 10020 (1993) pdf
Foxman et al., PRB50, 14193 (1994) pdf
Thur, Nov 13, 8:00amquantum dots II: Open Dots
open dot regime, conductance fluctuations,
weak localization, phase coherence, 
random matrix theory, spin-orbit coupling in 
semiconductors and quantum dots, weak antilocalization 
lecture notes pdf

A. Huibers, Ph. D. Thesis (1999) and
S. Cronenwett, Ph. D. Thesis (2001)
are available on the marcuslab[page does not exist anymore] webpage. 

open dot regime 
Huibers et al., PRL83, 5090 (1999) pdf
Thur, Nov 20, 8:00amquantum dots III: Kondo Effect 
Kondo effect (metals, quantum dots), Kondo screening cloud, zero bias peak, logarithmic temperature dependence, even-odd structure 
lecture notes pdf

Kondo effect
Goldhaber-Gordon et al., Nature 391, 156 (1998) pdf
Cronenwett et al., Science 281, 540 (1998) pdf
Wed, Nov 26, 12:00pmpresentations I
1. charge sensing, Andreas Trüsel
2. charge manipulation, Melanie Burkhardt 
Thur, Nov 27, 8:00amquantum dots IV: Few Electron Dots 
lateral / vertical few electron structures, circular symmetry: shell filling, Fock-Darwin states, Singlet-Triplet states, Singlet Triplet ground state transition, 
lecture notes pdf

Few Electron Dots
Tarucha et al., PRL77, 3613 (1996) pdf
Ciorga et al., PRB61, 16315 (2000) pdf
Kouwenhoven et al., Science 278, 1788 (1997) pdf
Kouwenhoven, Austing & Tarucha, RPP 64, 701 (2002) pdf

Tue, Dec 2, 8:15amdouble quantum dots
double quantum dots, honey comb stability diagrams,
finite bias transport, anticrossings 
lecture notes pdf
Wed, Dec 3, 12:00pmpresentations II
3. singlet triplet states, Mathias Wipf
4. spin blockade, Lukas Greuter
Thur, Dec 4, 8:00ampresentations III
5. spin relaxation I, Raphael Widmer
6. spin relaxation II, Susanne Baumann
7. spin filtering, Michael Sicher
8. single spin readout, Franz Knuth
Wed, Dec 10, 12:00pmpresentations IV
9. fast spin readout, Dario Maradan
10. nuclear spins, Samuel d'Hollosy
Thur, Dec 11, 8:00ampresentations V
11. spin manipulation, Cornelia Nef
12. electron spin resonance (ESR), Markus Langer
13. dynamic nuclear polarization, Lajko Zweifel
Wed, Dec 17, 12:00pmpresentations VII
14. ESR with SO, Dominic Giss
15. ESR with nuclei, Andreas Wepf
Thur, Dec 18, 8:00ampresentations VIII
17. carbon nanotubes: SO coupling, Lucas Casparis
18. carbon nanotubes: Wigner crystal, Petar Jurcevic
19. graphene dots, Florian Kehl
20. hole spins, Robert Zielke 

Exercise Schedule and Content, HS 2008


Organization of the exercises: As a preparation for the exercises, the students thoroughly read the one or two papers assigned before the exercise, see list below for a schedule of papers. The assigned papers are typically 3-4 pages long. It is expected that every student has at least two questions ready as a basis or starting point for a discussion. In class, the papers are discussed in detail. Focus is on depth, not breadth. In every exercise class, one student is randomly picked to be the discussion leader / mediator. To assist the discussion, I will prepare slides containing the graphs of the paper. The exercise is pass fail, based on individual preparedness.


Wed, Sept. 24, 12:15pm

Aharonov-Bohm (AB) Effect
Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory
Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm
The Physical Review 115, 485 (August 1959), pdf
cited 2529 times (ISI, 24.9.08)
read the first three pages

Observation of h/e Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations in Normal-Metal Rings
R. A. Webb, S. Washburn, C. P. Umbach, and R. B. Laibowitz 
Physical Review Letters 54, 2696 (June 1985), pdf
cited 524 times (ISI, 24.9.08) 

additional reading (not mandatory): 
Aharonov-Bohm Chapter, Delft Mesoscopic Physics Course pdf
Wed, Oct. 1, 12:15pm

Aharonov-Bohm (AB) Effect (2)
Direct Observation of Ensemble Averaging of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Normal-Metal Loops
C. P. Umbach, C. Van Haesendonck, R. B. Laibowitz, S. Washburn, and R. A. Webb
Physical Review Letters 56, 386 (January 1986), pdf
cited 110 times (ISI, 24.9.08)

Asymmetry in the Magnetoconductance of Metal Wires and Loops
A. D. Benoit, S. Washburn, C. P. Umbach, R. B. Laibowitz, and R. A. Webb, 
Physical Review Letters 57, 1765 (October 1986), pdf
cited 104 times (ISI, 24.9.08)

additional reading (not mandatory): 
"Four Terminal Phase-Coherent Conductance", 
M. Büttiker, PRL 57, 1761 (1986). (1290 citations, ISI 30.9.08) pdf
Wed, Oct. 8, 12:15pm

Weak Localization (WL)
Scaling Theory of Localization: Absence of Quantum Diffusion in Two Dimensions
E. Abrahams, P. W. Anderson, D. C. Licciardello, and T. V. Ramakrishnan
Physical Review Letters 42, 673 (March 1979), pdfgang of 4 paper
3'090 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

Nonmetallic Conduction in Thin Metal Films at Low Temperatures
G. J. Dolan and D. D. Osheroff,
Physical Review Letters 43, 721 (September 1979), pdf
288 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

additional reading (not mandatory): 
Weak-Localization Section, Delft Mesoscopic Physics Course pdf
Wed, Oct. 15, 12:15pm

Weak Localization (WL) (2)
Quantitative analysis of weak localization in thin Mg films by magnetoresistance measurements
Gerd Bergmann
Physical Review B 25, 2937 (February 1982), pdf,
51 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

Dephasing time and one-dimensional localization of two-dimensional electrons in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures
K. K. Choi, D. C. Tsui, and K. Alavi
Physical Review B 36, 7751 (November 1987), pdf
59 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

additional reading (not mandatory): 
"Weak Localization in Thin Films: a time of flight experiment with conduction electrons", 
Gerd Bergmann, Physics Reports 107, 1 (November 1983). (1'069 citations, ISI 30.9.08) pdf
Wed, Oct. 22, 12:15pm

Universal Conductance Fluctuations (UCF)
Magnetoresistance of small, quasi one-dimensional, normal-metal rings and lines
C. P. Umbach, S. Washburn, R. B. Laibowitz, and R. A. Webb
Physical Review B 30, 4048 (October 1984), pdf,
260 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

Magnetoresistance Fluctuations in Mesoscopic Wires and Rings
A. Douglas Stone
Physical Review Letters 54, 2692 (June 1985), pdf
294 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

additional reading (not mandatory): 
"Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures", C. W. J. Beenakker and H. van Houten, 
published in Solid State Physics, 44, 1-228 (1991). (709 citations, ISI 30.9.08) pdf
Wed, Oct. 29, 12:15pm  
Wed, Nov. 5, 12:15pm

Universal Conductance Fluctuations (UCF) (2)
Aperiodic Magnetoresistance Oscillations in Narrow Inversion Layers in Si
J. C. Licini, D. J. Bishop, M. A. Kastner, and J. Melngailis
Physical Review Letters 55, 2987 (December 1985), pdf,
105 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

Universal Conductance Fluctuations in Silicon Inversion-Layer Nanostructures
W. J. Skocpol, P. M. Mankiewich, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, D. M. Tennant, and A. Douglas Stone
Physical Review Letters 56, 2865 (June 1986), pdf
190 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)
Wed, Nov. 19, 12:15pm

Coulomb Blockade (CB)
Observation of Single-Electron Charging Effects in Small Tunnel Junctions
T. A. Foulton and G. J. Dolan
Physical Review Letters 59, 109 (July 1987), pdf,
648 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

Conductance Oscillations Periodic in the Density of a One-Dimensional Electron Gas
J. H. F. Scott-Thomas, Stuart B. Field, M. A. Kastner, Henry I. Smith, D. A. Antoniadis
Physical Review Letters 62, 583 (January 1989), pdf
230 citations (ISI, 30.9.08)

additional reading (not mandatory): 
Comment to Scott-Thomas et al., H. van Houten and C. W. J. Beenakker, PRL 63, 1893 (Oct 1989), pdf
Authors reply, PRL63, 1894 (Oct 1989), pdf

Projects and Presentations, HS08

Presentations should be no longer than about 20 to 25 minutes, plus 5 to 10 minutes for questions. 
Goal of the presentation is to explain to your fellow classmates the topic you have chosen 
as clearly and as concisely as possible while keeping a critical attitude towards the reported research.
List of available topics (below) will be modified / adapted, but will vaguely consist of the topics listed below.

Topics with more than one article: 
choose one article for in-depth presentation, mention highlights of other paper(s). 

1. charge sensingMeasurements of Coulomb Blockade with a Noninvasive Voltage Probe
M. Field, C. G. Smith, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. E. F. Frost, G. A. C. Jones, and D. G. Hasko,
Phys. Rev. Letters 70, 1311 (1993) pdf

Few-electron quantum dot circuit with integrated charge read out
J. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, J. S. Greidanus, L. H. Willems van Beveren, S. De Franceschi, L. M. K. Vandersypen, S. Tarucha, and L. P. Kouwenhoven
Phys. Rev. B 67, 161308R (Apr 2003) pdf 

Andreas Trüsel
2. charge manipulation Coherent Manipulation of Electronic States in a Double Quantum Dot
T. Hayashi, T. Fujisawa, H. D. Cheong, Y. H. Jeong, and Y. Hirayama,
Phys. Rev. Letters 91, 226804 (Nov 2003) pdf 

Manipulation of a Single Charge in a Double Quantum Dot
J. R. Petta, A. C. Johnson, C.M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard
Phys. Rev. Letters 93, 186802 (Oct 2004) pdf

Melanie Burkhardt
3. singlet triplet statesVoltage-tunable singlet-triplet transition in lateral quantum dots
Jordan Kyriakidis, M. Pioro-Ladriere, M. Ciorga, A. S. Sachrajda, and P. Hawrylak
Phys. Rev. B 66, 35320 (Jul 2002) pdf

Cotunneling Spectroscopy in Few-Electron Quantum Dots
D.M. Zumbuühl C.M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson and A. C. Gossard,
Phys. Rev. Letters 93, 256801 (Dec 2004) pdf

Mathias Wipf
4. spin blockade 

Current Rectification by Pauli Exclusion in a Weakly Coupled Double Quantum Dot System
K. Ono, D. G. Austing, Y. Tokura, S. Tarucha1,
Science 297, 1313 (Aug 2002) pdf

Singlet-triplet spin blockade and charge sensing in a few-electron double quantum dot A. C. Johnson, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson and A. C. Gossard, Phys. Rev. B 72, 165308 (Oct 2005) pdf

Lukas Greuter
5. spin relaxation I Allowed and forbidden transitions in artificial hydrogen and helium atoms
Toshimasa Fujisawa, David Guy Austing, Yasuhiro Tokura, Yoshiro Hirayama & Seigo Tarucha
Nature 419, 278 (2002) pdf

Zeeman Energy and Spin Relaxation in a One-Electron Quantum Dot
R. Hanson, B.Witkamp, L.M. K. Vandersypen, L. H.Willems van Beveren, J.M. Elzerman, and L. P. Kouwenhoven
Phys. Rev. Letters 91, 196802 (2003) pdf

Raphael Widmer
6. spin relaxation II Electrical Control of Spin Relaxation in a Quantum Dot
S. Amasha, K. MacLean, Iuliana P. Radu, D. M. Zumbühl, M. A. Kastner, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard
Phys. Rev. Letters 100, 046803 (Feb 2008) pdf

Optically programmable electron spin memory using semiconductor quantum dots
Miro Kroutvar, Yann Ducommun, Dominik Heiss, Max Bichler, Dieter Schuh, Gerhard Abstreiter & Jonathan J. Finley
Nature 432, 81 (Nov 2004) pdf

Susanne Baumann
7. spin filteringDetecting Spin-Polarized Currents in Ballistic Nanostructures
R.M. Potok, J. A. Folk, C.M. Marcus, and V. Umansky
Phys. Rev. Letters 89, 266602 (Dec 2002) pdf

Semiconductor few-electron quantum dot operated as a bipolar spin filter
R. Hanson, L. M. K. Vandersypen, L. H. Willems van Beveren, J. M. Elzerman, I. T. Vink, and L. P. KouwenhovenHanson, 
Phys. Rev. B 70, 241304R (Dec 2004) pdf

Michael Sicher
8. single spin readoutSingle-shot read-out of an individual electron spin in a quantum dot
J. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, L. H. Willems van Beveren, B. Witkamp, L. M. K. Vandersypen & L. P. Kouwenhoven
Nature 430, 431 (Jul 2004) pdf

Single-Shot Readout of Electron Spin States in a Quantum Dot Using Spin-Dependent Tunnel Rates
R. Hanson, L. H. Willems van Beveren, I. T. Vink, J. M. Elzerman, W. J. M. Naber, F.H. L. Koppens, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, 
Phys. Rev. Letters 94, 196802 (May 2005) pdf

Franz Knuth
9. fast spin readout Cryogenic amplifier for fast real-time detection of single-electron tunneling
I. T. Vink, T. Nooitgedagt, R. N. Schouten, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, W. Wegscheider
App. Phys. Lett. 91, 123512 (Sep 2007) pdf

Fast single-charge sensing with a rf quantum point contact
D. J. Reilly, C. M. Marcusa, M. P. Hanson and A. C. Gossard,
App. Phys. Lett. 91, 162101 (Oct 2007) pdf

Dario Maradan
10. nuclear spins Triplet–singlet spin relaxation via nuclei in a double quantum dot
A. C. Johnson, J. R. Petta, J. M. Taylor, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson & A. C. Gossard,
Nature 435, 925 (Jun 2005) pdf

Control and Detection of Singlet-Triplet Mixing in a Random Nuclear Field
F. H. L. Koppens, J. A. Folk, J. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, L. H. Willems van Beveren, I. T. Vink, H. P. Tranitz, W. Wegscheider, L. P. Kouwenhoven, L. M. K. Vandersypen, 
Science 309, 134 (Aug 2005) pdf

Samuel d'Hollosy
11. spin manipulationCoherent Manipulation of Coupled Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
J. R. Petta, A. C. Johnson, J. M. Taylor, E. A. Laird, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, 
Science 309, 2180 (Sep 2005) pdf

Cornelia Nef
12. electron spin resonance (ESR) Driven coherent oscillations of a single electron spin in a quantum dot
F. H. L. Koppens, C. Buizert, K. J. Tielrooij, I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, T. Meunier, L. P. Kouwenhoven & L. M. K. Vandersypen,
Nature 442, 766 (Aug 2006) pdf

Markus Langer
13. dynamic nuclear polarization Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with Single Electron Spins
J. R. Petta, J. M. Taylor, A. C. Johnson, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 067601 (Feb 2008) pdf

Lajko Zweifel
14. ESR with SOCoherent Control of a Single Electron Spin with Electric Fields
K. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, Yu. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, 
Science 318, 1430 (Nov 2007) pdf

Dominic Giss
15. ESR with nuclei Hyperfine-mediated gate-driven electron spin resonance
E. A. Laird, C. Barthel, E. I. Rashba, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246601 (Dec 2007) pdf

Andreas Wepf
16. ESR slanting field Electrically driven single-electron spin resonance in a slanting Zeeman field
M. Pioro-Ladriere, T. Obata, Y. Tokura, Y.-S. Shin, T. Kubo, K. Yoshida, T. Taniyama, S. Tarucha, 
Nature Physics 4, 776 (Oct 2008) pdf

17. carbon nanotubes:
SO coupling 
Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes
F. Kuemmeth, S. Ilani, D. C. Ralph, P. L. McEuen, 
Nature 452, 448 (Mar 2008) pdf

News and Views: Carbon nanotubes: Old nanotubes, new tricks, Jesper Nygaard, 
Nature Physics 4, 266 (Apr 2008) pdf 

Lucas Casparis
18. carbon nanotubes:
Wigner crystal
The one-dimensional Wigner crystal in carbon nanotubes
Vikram V. Deshpande, Marc Bockrath, 
Nature Physics 4, 314 (Apr 2008) pdf

News and Views: Carbon nanotubes: Old nanotubes, new tricks, Jesper Nygaard, 
Nature Physics 4, 266 (Apr 2008) pdf

Petar Jurcevic
19. graphene dotsChaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots
L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim
Science 320, 356 (Apr 2008) pdf

News and Views: Graphene Nanoelectronics, Robert M. Westervelt, 
Science 320, 324 (Apr 2008) pdf

Florian Kehl
20. Hole SpinsOptical pumping of a single hole spin in a quantum dot
Brian D. Gerardot, Daniel Brunner, Paul A. Dalgarno, Patrik Ahberg, Stefan Seidl, Martin Kroner, Khaled Karrai, Nick G. Stoltz, Pierre M. Petroff, Richard J. Warburton
Nature 451, 441 (Jan 2008) pdf

Robert Zielke
21. Coherence ControlSuppressing Spin Qubit Dephasing by Nuclear State Preparation
D. J. Reilly, J. M. Taylor, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard
Science 321, 817 (Aug 2008) pdf




“Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures”, Thomas Heinzel, Wiley-VCH (2003)
 “Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems”, Supriyo Datta, Cambridge Universy Press (1995)
 “The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semicond.”, John H. Davies, Cambridge University Press (1998)

review articles
“Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures”, C. W. J. Beenakker and H. van Houten, published in Solid State Physics, 44, 1-228 (1991) (out of print, available at arXive:cond-mat/0412664) pdf

“Electron Transport in Quantum Dots”, L. P. Kouwenhoven, C. M. Marcus, P. L. McEuen, S. Tarucha, R. M. Westervelt and N. Wingreen, NATO ASI conference proceedings, edited by L. L. Sohn, L. P. Kouwenhoven and G. Schön (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997). pdf

“Coulomb Blockade Oscillations in Semiconductor Nanostructures”, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker and A. A. M. Staring, published in Single Charge Tunneling, edited by H. Grabert and M. H. Devoret,  NATO ASI series B294 (Plenum, New York, 1992), (out of print, available at arXive:cond-mat/0508454). pdf

“Few-Electron Quantum Dots”, L. P. Kouwenhoven, D. G. Austing and S. Tarucha, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 701 (2001). pdf

“Electron transport through double quantum dots”, W. G. van der Wiel, S. De Franceschi, J. M. Elzerman, T. Fujisawa, S. Tarucha, and L. P. Kouwenhoven, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 1-22 (2003) pdf

“Recipes for Spin Based Quantum Computing”, V. Cerletti, W. A. Coish, O. Gywat and D. Loss, Nanotechnology 16, R27 (2005). pdf

“Spins in few-electron quantum dots”, R. Hanson, L. P. Kouwenhoven, J. R. Petta, S. Tarucha, and L. M. Vandersypen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1217-1265 (2007) pdf

“Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors”, R. Hanson and D. Awschalom, Nature 453, 1043 (June 2008, Insight Review) pdf