**Spring semester 2013**

Prof. Dr. Dominik Zumbühl,

*last updated Mar 10, 2013*

*previous year:* Spring 2012

lectures **Tuesday, 4:15pm - 6pm**, HS2 (alter Hoersaal)

exercises **Thursday, 10:15am-12pm**, room 3.12

syllabus semiconductor surfaces and interfaces, 2D electron gas, quantum point contacts, quantum dots, conductance fluctuations, quantum phase coherence, Coulomb blockade, Kondo effect, few electron dots, spin blockade, spin relaxation, charge sensing, single spin measurement, spin manipulation and coherence, nuclear spins, electron spin resonance, spin qubits, quantum computation. syllabus pdf

mainly for masters students in nanoscience and physics. Physics III and condensed matter physics lecture is a prerequisite. 6. semester bachelor students are also allowed to take the class.

credit points 2 credit points lecture and (optional) 2 credit points exercises. Lecture is a two hours per week course, final presentation with number grade 1-6. The exercises (pass/fail) will consist of 3-4 problem sets and reading a series of scientific publications relevant to class, meeting one to two hours per week where papers discussed by the students in depth.

purpose of this lecture is to introduce the class to the physics of quantum transport in electronic nanostructures and electron spin qubits, discussing among other topics spin qubits in GaAs. The lecture will inevitably discuss some simple condensed matter theory but **will mainly focus on experiments**.

structure will be a combination of lectures on my part to introduce the basics and subsequent presentations done by students towards the end of the semester on topics that can be chosen by students from a selection. There will be 3-4 problem sets, and moderate amounts of reading assignments in weeks without problem sets as preparation for lectures. The class grade will be based on the presentation given by each student taking the class for credit (presentation toward the end of the semester during class). Sit-ins/students auditing the class (not for credit) *are also welcome*.

preliminary meeting / Vorbesprechung Thursday (28.2.2013), 11:15-12:00, Room 4.1

scheduling, contents (Festlegung der Termine, Vorbesprechung), Syllabus pdf

date | lecture content |
---|---|

Thursday, Feb 28, 11:15am, Room 4.1 | preliminary meeting, flyer pdf |

Thursday, Mar 7, 10:15am room 3.1 | solid state physics backgroundcrystals, bands, effective mass approximation, spin-orbit coupling, GaAs conduction and valence bands, DOS, Fermi distribution, doping lecture notes pdf, slides pdf additional reading: Introduction and Motivation pdf |

Tuesday, Mar 12, 4:15pm HS2 | semiconductor surfaces and interfacessurface states, semiconductor-vacuum interface, band bending, Fermi level pinning, Schottky barrier and diode lecture notes Chapter 2 pdf (GaAs)2D electron gasesproperties of 2DEGs, scattering mechanisms in 2DEGs and bulk GaAs, screening in 2D and 3D, Friedel Oscillations, ohmic contacts to 2DEGs, lateral gating and nanoscale devices lecture notes pdf |

Tuesday, Mar 19, 4:15pm HS2 | concepts in mesoscopic physics (I)Drude conductivity, Einstein relation, mesoscopic time and length scales, classical Hall effect, (integer) quantum Hall effect, 1D subbands, quantum point contacts, 0.7 structure lecture notes chapter 3 pdf lecture slides pdf |

Tuesday, Mar 26, 4:15pm HS2 | concepts in mesoscopic physics (II)classical Hall effect, (integer) quantum Hall effect, 1D subbands, quantum point contacts, 0.7 structure lecture notes chapter 3 pdf lecture slides pdf quantum point contacts (QPCs)van Wees et al., PRL 60, 848 (1988) pdfvan Wees et al., PRB 38, 3625 (1988) pdfCronenwett et al., PRL 88, 226805 (2002) pdflecture notes pdf |

Tuesday, Apr 9, 4:15pm HS2 | quantum dots I: Introductiontypes of quantum dots, open and closed dot regimes, Coulomb blockade and diamonds, quantum confinement energy, constant interaction model, ground state and excited state spectroscopy, sequential and cotunneling transport, Coulomb peak line shapes lecture notes pdf articles: Kouwenhoven et al., dot review article, pp 1-28 pdf van Houten et al., CB review, NATO ASI, pp 1-15 pdf Foxman et al., PRB47, 10020 (1993) pdf Foxman et al., PRB50, 14193 (1994) pdf |

Tuesday, Apr 16, 4:15pm HS2 | quantum dots II: Few Electron Dotslateral / vertical few electron structures, circular symmetry: shell filling, Fock-Darwin states, Singlet-Triplet states, Singlet Triplet ground state transition, lecture notes pdf Few Electron DotsTarucha et al., PRL77, 3613 (1996) pdf Ciorga et al., PRB61, 16315 (2000) pdf Kouwenhoven et al., Science 278, 1788 (1997) pdf Kouwenhoven, Austing & Tarucha, RPP 64, 701 (2002) pdf quantum dots III: Double Quantum Dotsdouble quantum dots, honey comb stability diagrams, finite bias transport, anticrossings lecture notes pdf Double Dotsvan der Wiel et al., RMP75, 1 (2003) pdf |

Tuesday, Apr 23, 4:15pm HS2 | quantum dots IV: Kondo Effect Kondo effect (metals, quantum dots), Kondo screening cloud, zero bias peak, logarithmic temperature dependence, even-odd structure lecture notes pdf Kondo effectGoldhaber-Gordon et al., Nature 391, 156 (1998) pdf Cronenwett et al., Science 281, 540 (1998) pdf |

Tuesday, Apr 30, 4:15pm HS2 | quantum dots V: Open Dotsopen dot regime, conductance fluctuations, weak localization, phase coherence, random matrix theory, spin-orbit coupling in semiconductors and quantum dots, weak antilocalization lecture notes pdf open dot regime Huibers et al., PRL83, 5090 (1999) pdf |

tbd | presentations I(3 student presentations) |

tbd | presentations II(3 student presentation) |

tbd | presentations III(3 student presentation) |

Organization of the exercises: As a preparation for the exercises, the students thoroughly read the one or two papers assigned before the exercise, see list below for a schedule of papers. The assigned papers are typically 3-4 pages long. It is expected that every student has at least two questions ready as a basis or starting point for a discussion. In class, the papers are discussed in detail. Focus is on depth (not breadth). In every exercise class, one student is randomly picked to be the discussion leader / mediator. To assist the discussion, the discussion leader prepares slides containing the graphs of the paper. The exercise is pass fail, based on individual preparedness. 3-4 problem sets will alternate with paper discussions.

date | papers |
---|---|

Thur, Mar 14, 10:15am room 3.12 Aharonov-Bohm (AB) Effect | Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum TheoryY. Aharonov and D. Bohm The Physical Review 115, 485 (August 1959), pdfcited 2'975 times (ISI, 6.3.11)read the first three pages Observation of h/e Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations in Normal-Metal RingsR. A. Webb, S. Washburn, C. P. Umbach, and R. B. Laibowitz Physical Review Letters 54, 2696 (June 1985), pdfcited 601 times (ISI, 6.3.11) additional reading (not mandatory): Aharonov-Bohm Chapter, Delft Mesoscopic Physics Course pdf |

Thur, Mar 21, 10:15am room 3.12 Aharonov-Bohm (AB) Effect (2) | Direct Observation of Ensemble Averaging of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Normal-Metal LoopsC. P. Umbach, C. Van Haesendonck, R. B. Laibowitz, S. Washburn, and R. A. Webb Physical Review Letters 56, 386 (January 1986), pdfcited 119 times (ISI, 6.3.11)Asymmetry in the Magnetoconductance of Metal Wires and LoopsA. D. Benoit, S. Washburn, C. P. Umbach, R. B. Laibowitz, and R. A. Webb, Physical Review Letters 57, 1765 (October 1986), pdfcited 110 times (ISI, 6.3.11)additional reading (not mandatory): "Four Terminal Phase-Coherent Conductance", M. Büttiker, PRL 57, 1761 (1986). (1'532 citations, ISI 6.3.11) pdf |

Tue, Apr 2, 4:15pm room 3.12 Weak Localization (WL) | Scaling Theory of Localization: Absence of Quantum Diffusion in Two DimensionsE. Abrahams, P. W. Anderson, D. C. Licciardello, and T. V. Ramakrishnan Physical Review Letters 42, 673 (March 1979), pdf, gang of 4 paper3'469 citations (ISI, 9.3.11)Nonmetallic Conduction in Thin Metal Films at Low TemperaturesG. J. Dolan and D. D. Osheroff, Physical Review Letters 43, 721 (September 1979), pdf297 citations (ISI, 9.3.11)additional reading (not mandatory): Weak-Localization Section, Delft Mesoscopic Physics Course pdf |

Thurs, Apr 4, 10:15am room 3.12 Weak Localization (WL) (2) | Quantitative analysis of weak localization in thin Mg films by magnetoresistance measurementsGerd Bergmann Physical Review B 25, 2937 (February 1982), pdf,55 citations (ISI, 9.3.11)Dephasing time and one-dimensional localization of two-dimensional electrons in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructuresK. K. Choi, D. C. Tsui, and K. Alavi Physical Review B 36, 7751 (November 1987), pdf64 citations (ISI, 9.3.11)additional reading (not mandatory): "Weak Localization in Thin Films: a time of flight experiment with conduction electrons", Gerd Bergmann, Physics Reports 107, 1 (November 1983). (1'190 citations, ISI 9.3.11) pdf |

Thur, Apr 11, 10:15am room 3.12 problem set #1 | problem set #1 |

Thur, Apr 18, 10:15am room 3.12 Universal Conductance Fluctuations (UCF) | Magnetoresistance of small, quasi one-dimensional, normal-metal rings and linesC. P. Umbach, S. Washburn, R. B. Laibowitz, and R. A. Webb Physical Review B 30, 4048 (October 1984), pdf,269 citations (ISI, 27.4.11)Magnetoresistance Fluctuations in Mesoscopic Wires and RingsA. Douglas Stone Physical Review Letters 54, 2692 (June 1985), pdf301 citations (ISI, 27.4.11)additional reading (not mandatory): "Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures", C. W. J. Beenakker and H. van Houten, published in Solid State Physics, 44, 1-228 (1991). (709 citations, ISI 30.9.08) pdf |

Thur, Apr 25, 10:15am room 3.12 Universal Conductance Fluctuations (UCF) (2) | Aperiodic Magnetoresistance Oscillations in Narrow Inversion Layers in SiJ. C. Licini, D. J. Bishop, M. A. Kastner, and J. Melngailis Physical Review Letters 55, 2987 (December 1985), pdf,109 citations (ISI, 27.4.11)Universal Conductance Fluctuations in Silicon Inversion-Layer NanostructuresW. J. Skocpol, P. M. Mankiewich, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, D. M. Tennant, and A. Douglas Stone Physical Review Letters 56, 2865 (June 1986), pdf200 citations (ISI, 27.4.11) |

Thur, May 2, 10:15am room 3.12 problem set #2 | problem set #2 |

Thur, May 16, 10:15am room 3.12 Circular Quantum Dots | Shell Filling and Spin Effects in a Few Electron Quantum DotS. Tarucha, D. G. Austing, and T. Honda, R. J. van der Hage and L. P. Kouwenhoven Physical Review Letters 77, 3613 (October 1996), pdf,980 citations (ISI, 27.4.11)Excitation Spectra of Circular, Few-Electron Quantum DotsL. P. Kouwenhoven, T. H. Oosterkamp, M. W. S. Danoesastro, M. Eto, D. G. Austing, T. Honda, S. Tarucha Science 278, 1788 (December 1997), pdf300 citations (ISI, 27.4.11) |

Thur, May 23, 10:15amSwiss Nano-Convention | no exercise |

Thur, May 30, 10:15amproblem set #3 | problem set #3 |

Presentations should be no longer than about 20 to 25 minutes, plus 5 to 10 minutes for questions.

Goal of the presentation is to explain to your fellow classmates the topic you have chosen

as clearly and as concisely as possible while keeping a critical attitude towards the reported research.

List of available topics (below) will be modified / adapted, but will vaguely consist of the topics listed below.

Topics with more than one article:

choose one article for in-depth presentation, mention highlights of other paper(s).

topic | refs | presenter |
---|---|---|

1. charge sensing | Measurements of Coulomb Blockade with a Noninvasive Voltage ProbeM. Field, C. G. Smith, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. E. F. Frost, G. A. C. Jones, and D. G. Hasko, Phys. Rev. Letters 70, 1311 (1993) pdfFew-electron quantum dot circuit with integrated charge read outJ. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, J. S. Greidanus, L. H. Willems van Beveren, S. De Franceschi, L. M. K. Vandersypen, S. Tarucha, and L. P. Kouwenhoven Phys. Rev. B 67, 161308R (Apr 2003) pdf | |

2. charge manipulation | Coherent Manipulation of Electronic States in a Double Quantum DotT. Hayashi, T. Fujisawa, H. D. Cheong, Y. H. Jeong, and Y. Hirayama, Phys. Rev. Letters 91, 226804 (Nov 2003) pdf Manipulation of a Single Charge in a Double Quantum DotJ. R. Petta, A. C. Johnson, C.M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard Phys. Rev. Letters 93, 186802 (Oct 2004) pdf | |

3. singlet triplet states | Voltage-tunable singlet-triplet transition in lateral quantum dotsJordan Kyriakidis, M. Pioro-Ladriere, M. Ciorga, A. S. Sachrajda, and P. Hawrylak Phys. Rev. B 66, 35320 (Jul 2002) pdfCotunneling Spectroscopy in Few-Electron Quantum DotsD.M. Zumbuühl C.M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson and A. C. Gossard, Phys. Rev. Letters 93, 256801 (Dec 2004) pdf | |

4. spin blockade | Current Rectification by Pauli Exclusion in a Weakly Coupled Double Quantum Dot SystemK. Ono, D. G. Austing, Y. Tokura, S. Tarucha1, Science 297, 1313 (Aug 2002) pdfSinglet-triplet spin blockade and charge sensing in a few-electron double quantum dotA. C. Johnson, J. R. Petta, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson and A. C. Gossard, Phys. Rev. B 72, 165308 (Oct 2005) pdf | |

5. spin relaxation I | Allowed and forbidden transitions in artificial hydrogen and helium atomsToshimasa Fujisawa, David Guy Austing, Yasuhiro Tokura, Yoshiro Hirayama & Seigo Tarucha Nature 419, 278 (2002) pdfZeeman Energy and Spin Relaxation in a One-Electron Quantum DotR. Hanson, B.Witkamp, L.M. K. Vandersypen, L. H.Willems van Beveren, J.M. Elzerman, and L. P. Kouwenhoven Phys. Rev. Letters 91, 196802 (2003) pdf | |

6. spin relaxation II | Electrical Control of Spin Relaxation in a Quantum DotS. Amasha, K. MacLean, Iuliana P. Radu, D. M. Zumbühl, M. A. Kastner, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard Phys. Rev. Letters 100, 046803 (Feb 2008) pdfOptically programmable electron spin memory using semiconductor quantum dotsMiro Kroutvar, Yann Ducommun, Dominik Heiss, Max Bichler, Dieter Schuh, Gerhard Abstreiter & Jonathan J. Finley Nature 432, 81 (Nov 2004) pdf | |

7. spin filtering | Detecting Spin-Polarized Currents in Ballistic NanostructuresR.M. Potok, J. A. Folk, C.M. Marcus, and V. Umansky Phys. Rev. Letters 89, 266602 (Dec 2002) pdfSemiconductor few-electron quantum dot operated as a bipolar spin filterR. Hanson, L. M. K. Vandersypen, L. H. Willems van Beveren, J. M. Elzerman, I. T. Vink, and L. P. KouwenhovenHanson, Phys. Rev. B 70, 241304R (Dec 2004) pdf | |

8. single spin readout | Single-shot read-out of an individual electron spin in a quantum dotJ. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, L. H. Willems van Beveren, B. Witkamp, L. M. K. Vandersypen & L. P. Kouwenhoven Nature 430, 431 (Jul 2004) pdfSingle-Shot Readout of Electron Spin States in a Quantum Dot Using Spin-Dependent Tunnel RatesR. Hanson, L. H. Willems van Beveren, I. T. Vink, J. M. Elzerman, W. J. M. Naber, F.H. L. Koppens, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, Phys. Rev. Letters 94, 196802 (May 2005) pdf | |

9. fast spin readout | Cryogenic amplifier for fast real-time detection of single-electron tunnelingI. T. Vink, T. Nooitgedagt, R. N. Schouten, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, W. Wegscheider App. Phys. Lett. 91, 123512 (Sep 2007) pdf Fast single-charge sensing with a rf quantum point contactD. J. Reilly, C. M. Marcusa, M. P. Hanson and A. C. Gossard, App. Phys. Lett. 91, 162101 (Oct 2007) pdf | |

10. nuclear spins | Triplet–singlet spin relaxation via nuclei in a double quantum dotA. C. Johnson, J. R. Petta, J. M. Taylor, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson & A. C. Gossard, Nature 435, 925 (Jun 2005) pdfControl and Detection of Singlet-Triplet Mixing in a Random Nuclear FieldF. H. L. Koppens, J. A. Folk, J. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, L. H. Willems van Beveren, I. T. Vink, H. P. Tranitz, W. Wegscheider, L. P. Kouwenhoven, L. M. K. Vandersypen, Science 309, 134 (Aug 2005) pdf | |

11. spin manipulation | Coherent Manipulation of Coupled Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum DotsJ. R. Petta, A. C. Johnson, J. M. Taylor, E. A. Laird, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, Science 309, 2180 (Sep 2005) pdf | |

12. electron spin resonance (ESR) | Driven coherent oscillations of a single electron spin in a quantum dotF. H. L. Koppens, C. Buizert, K. J. Tielrooij, I. T. Vink, K. C. Nowack, T. Meunier, L. P. Kouwenhoven & L. M. K. Vandersypen, Nature 442, 766 (Aug 2006) pdf | |

13. dynamic nuclear polarization | Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with Single Electron SpinsJ. R. Petta, J. M. Taylor, A. C. Johnson, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 067601 (Feb 2008) pdf | |

14. ESR with SO | Coherent Control of a Single Electron Spin with Electric FieldsK. C. Nowack, F. H. L. Koppens, Yu. V. Nazarov, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, Science 318, 1430 (Nov 2007) pdf | |

15. ESR with nuclei | Hyperfine-mediated gate-driven electron spin resonanceE. A. Laird, C. Barthel, E. I. Rashba, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246601 (Dec 2007) pdf | |

16. ESR slanting field | Electrically driven single-electron spin resonance in a slanting Zeeman fieldM. Pioro-Ladriere, T. Obata, Y. Tokura, Y.-S. Shin, T. Kubo, K. Yoshida, T. Taniyama, S. Tarucha, Nature Physics 4, 776 (Oct 2008) pdf | |

17. carbon nanotubes: SO coupling | Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubesF. Kuemmeth, S. Ilani, D. C. Ralph, P. L. McEuen, Nature 452, 448 (Mar 2008) pdfNews and Views: Carbon nanotubes: Old nanotubes, new tricks, Jesper Nygaard, Nature Physics 4, 266 (Apr 2008) pdf | |

18. carbon nanotubes: Wigner crystal and Mott insulator | The one-dimensional Wigner crystal in carbon nanotubesVikram V. Deshpande, Marc Bockrath, Nature Physics 4, 314 (Apr 2008) pdf, news and views by Jesper Nygaard pdfMott Insulating State in Ultraclean Carbon NanotubesVikram V. Deshpande, Bhupesh Chandra, Robert Caldwell, Dmitry S. Novikov, James Hone, Marc Bockrath, Science 323, 106 (Jan 2009) pdf, SOM pdf, news and views by C. Schönenberger pdf | |

19. graphene dots | Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum DotsL. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim Science 320, 356 (Apr 2008) pdfNews and Views: Graphene Nanoelectronics, Robert M. Westervelt, Science 320, 324 (Apr 2008) pdfElectron-Hole Crossover in Graphene Quantum DotsJ. Güttinger, C. Stampfer, F. Libisch, T. Frey, J. Burgdoerfer, T. Ihn, K. Ensslin Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 046810 (Apr 2008) pdf | |

20. optical hole spins | Optical pumping of a single hole spin in a quantum dotBrian D. Gerardot, Daniel Brunner, Paul A. Dalgarno, Patrik Ahberg, Stefan Seidl, Martin Kroner, Khaled Karrai, Nick G. Stoltz, Pierre M. Petroff, Richard J. Warburton Nature 451, 441 (Jan 2008) pdfA Coherent Single-Hole Spin in a SemiconductorD. Brunner, B. D. Gerardot, P. A. Dalgarno, G. Wüst, K. Karrai, N. G. Stoltz, P. M. Petroff, R. J. Warburton, Science 325, 70 (July 2009) pdf, SOM pdf, perspectives pdf | |

21. clean nanotubes | Tunable few-electron double quantum dots and Klein tunnelling in ultraclean carbon nanotubesG. A. Steele, G. Gotz and L. P. Kouwenhoven Nature Nanotechnology 4, 363 (Apr 2009) pdf, SOM pdfStrong Coupling between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical MotionG. A. Steele, A. K. Hüttel, B. Witkamp, M. Poot, H. B. Meerwaldt, L. P. Kouwenhoven, H. S. J. van der Zant, Science 325, 1103 (August 2009) pdf, SOM pdf, Perspectives pdf | |

22. localization and disorder in graphene | The nature of localization in graphene under quantum Hall conditionsJ. Martin, N. Akerman, G. Ulbricht, T. Lohmann, K. von Klitzing, J. H. Smet & A. Yacoby Nature Physics 5, 669 (July 2009) pdfOrigin of spatial charge inhomogeneity in grapheneY. Zhang, V. W. Brar, C. Girit, A. Zettl and M. F. Crommie Nature Physics 5, 722 (July 2009) pdf, SOM pdf | |

23. graphene quantum Hall effect | FQHE Fractional quantum Hall effect and insulating phase of Dirac electrons in grapheneXu Du, Ivan Skachko, Fabian Duerr, Adina Luican & Eva Y. Andrei Nature xxx, xxx (October 2009) pdf, SOM pdfObservation of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in GrapheneKirill I. Bolotin, Fereshte Ghahari, Michael D. Shulman, Horst L. Stormer, Philip Kim arXiv:0910:2763 (October 2009) pdf IQHE Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in grapheneK. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, A. A. Firsov Nature 438, 197 (November 2005) pdfExperimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in grapheneY. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, P. Kim Nature 438, 201 (November 2005) pdf, SOM pdf |

**books**

“*Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures*”, Thomas Heinzel, Wiley-VCH (2003)

“*Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems*”, Supriyo Datta, Cambridge Universy Press (1995)

“*The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semicond.*”, John H. Davies, Cambridge University Press (1998)

**review articles**

“*Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures*”, C. W. J. Beenakker and H. van Houten, published in Solid State Physics, 44, 1-228 (1991) (out of print, available at arXive:cond-mat/0412664) pdf

“*Electron Transport in Quantum Dots*”, L. P. Kouwenhoven, C. M. Marcus, P. L. McEuen, S. Tarucha, R. M. Westervelt and N. Wingreen, NATO ASI conference proceedings, edited by L. L. Sohn, L. P. Kouwenhoven and G. Schön (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997). pdf

“*Coulomb Blockade Oscillations in Semiconductor Nanostructures*”, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker and A. A. M. Staring, published in *Single Charge Tunneling*, edited by H. Grabert and M. H. Devoret, NATO ASI series B294 (Plenum, New York, 1992), (out of print, available at arXive:cond-mat/0508454). pdf

“*Few-Electron Quantum Dots*”, L. P. Kouwenhoven, D. G. Austing and S. Tarucha, Rep. Prog. Phys. **64**, 701 (2001). pdf

“*Electron transport through double quantum dots*”, W. G. van der Wiel, S. De Franceschi, J. M. Elzerman, T. Fujisawa, S. Tarucha, and L. P. Kouwenhoven, Rev. Mod. Phys. **75**, 1-22 (2003) pdf

“*Recipes for Spin Based Quantum Computing*”, V. Cerletti, W. A. Coish, O. Gywat and D. Loss, Nanotechnology **16**, R27 (2005). pdf

“*Spins in few-electron quantum dots*”, R. Hanson, L. P. Kouwenhoven, J. R. Petta, S. Tarucha, and L. M. Vandersypen, Rev. Mod. Phys. **79**, 1217-1265 (2007) pdf

“*Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors*”, R. Hanson and D. Awschalom, Nature **453**, 1043 (June 2008, Insight Review) pdf